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Articulation errors mean you have difficulty producing sounds or are saying words incorrectly.  Articulation is the sounds you hear when someone speaks: like ‘wabbit’ for ‘rabbit’ or ‘wike’ for ‘like.’

Phonological Processing Patterns

Phonological patterns are techniques used by children to simplify adult speech & often results in highly unintelligible speech.  For example: ‘soup’ becomes ‘dup’ or ‘cat’ becomes ‘tat.’

Apraxia of Speech

Apraxia is the inability to carryout purposeful movements used for speech & often results in unintelligible speech.

Treatment of Speech Sound Disorders

Speech sound disorder treatment may include exercises that involve having the therapist model correct sounds for a child & demonstrate how to move the tongue.  The Hodson approach is used for highly unintelligible children, which focuses on patterns of errors rather than each sound.


Receptive Language

Receptive language is the ability to understand or comprehend what others say.  For example: following directions, understanding basic concepts, or difficulty with reading comprehension.  Receptive language skills are vital for school success.

Pragmatic Language

Pragmatics are the social rules of language.  Social skills therapy includes both the verbal & non-verbal (body language) form of communication.  

Expressive Language

Expressive language is the ability to speak in a meaningful manner or difficulty communicating effectively.  Children that have a limited vocabulary, errors in sentence structure, &/or inability to answer questions might have an expressive language disorder.  

Treatment of Language Disorders

Language therapy focuses on the understanding, organizing & production of thoughts.  Language intervention activities may include interacting with a child by playing & talking, using pictures, books, objects or ongoing events to stimulate language development.  Social skills therapy may include playing with others or learning & practicing appropriate social rules in conversation 



Stuttering is a fluency disorder where there is an interruption in the flow & ease of speech.  Stuttering can include uncontrolled repetitions (st-st-stutters), prolongations (lllliiiike this), blocks or unusual breathing patterns while speaking. 

Augmentative & Alternative Communication (AAC) Use

Use of total communication systems are designed to support, enhance or supplement the current communication skills of children who are not able to be understood by using their voice.


Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder in which the muscles of the mouth, face and respiratory system may become weak, move slowly or not move at all after a stroke or other brain injury.  Children may also have difficulty with feeding skills due to weakness or rate of movement. 

Treatment of Speech Disorders

Speech disorder treatments focus on improving communication abilities by utilizing a variety of strategies & techniques that works for the child & their family.  

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